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Question 1 : Explain the difference between crime and deviance, provide two examples of both:
Deviance refers to behavior that does not conform to societal standards and values and, if detected, may result in undesirable consequences. Crime, is defined as the deliberate performance of a deviant act or inaction of an event that is socially destructive or hazardous and is penalized by law.
Deviant acts are not published or recorded anywhere, while crimes are very well put in writing in the penal code. Pertaining degree, deviation compares favorably in contrast to criminal activity. Social institutions and groups are frequently in charge of policing deviance. Police and the courts, on the other hand, exist to regulate crime and disorder by punishing wrongdoers.
An example of a deviant act is drug use, while an example of a crime is the selling of drugs.
Question 2 : Explain the difference between the value conflict, anomie, and the control perspectives of crime and deviance
Conflict theory does not consider these variables as beneficial to society. They perceive them as proof of the system’s inequity. Conflict theory is also interested in the relationship between gender and race, as well as money and crime.
Anomie is a condition of normlessness, characterized by a lack of social cohesiveness and solidarity, which frequently occurs as a result of fast societal change. Pre-modern cultures had close-knit communities built on communal labor, which meant that developing common standards and values, as well as a collective conscience, was relatively straightforward compared to the complexity of contemporary industrial society, where Crime and deviance are attributed to social and economic variables in conflict theory. individuals were far more alienated. Anomie was one reason for deviation: if people were not adequately socialized into society’s common norms and values, or if society was changing so rapidly that the common values and beliefs were unclear, deviance (and hence crime) was far more likely.
According to Control Theory, crime occurs when social institutions lose control over individuals. Higher crime rates are connected to weak institutions such as specific types of families, the dissolution of local communities, and the loss of faith in the government and the police. Criminal behavior, according to control theory, arises when an individual’s commitment to society is reduced. The power of social relationships that bind people to society determines their level of attachment. Attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief, according to Hirschi, are the four social relationships that link us together.
Question 3: Explain the difference between violent crime, non-violent crime , and victimless crime
A violent crime may be described as a crime against another individual. Use of force or a threat of force against a person is usually identified as a violent crime. An example is murder, armed robbery, or rape.
A non-violent crime may be identified as a crime that involves the destruction of property, however, there is no use of force or threat of force.
A victimless crime describes a crime where the perpetrator is usually the victim. A crime such as underage drinking or prostitution is an example of a victimless crime.
Question 4: What is the UCR, explain? Identify at least one problem with the UCR
The uniform crime reporting program is an FBI platform created to keep a record of crime data. It gives statistics to ascertain the crime rates of different areas. It is a collective effort of multiple agencies that assist in giving reliable statistics.
One problem about the UCR is that it does not record all crimes since a lot of crimes also go unreported. The quality of data is also uncertain since different methods of data collection are used and sometimes the important details are not captured.
Question 5: Explain how some see deviance as a medical, rather than social problem. Why does sociology view deviance as a social, rather than, medical problem?
Deviance may be seen as some as a result of medical conditions. People with some mental conditions are sometimes predisposed to deviant behavior. They often do the thing that is not the norm in society. Sociology however conforms to the idea that deviance is a product of social conditions. Being a product of a certain social environment can result in deviance.